Home » Uncategorized » Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes





We estimated nucleotide divergence in unique gap-free sequence, indicated at each node, from the alignment of rhesus macaque (yellow), gibbon (purple), orang-utan (orange), gorilla (aqua), chimpanzee (green) and human (blue) whole genome shotgun reads to the human reference (Hs.35; Supplementary Information section 3). Note that the Bornean (P. pygmaeus) and Sumatran (P. abelii) orang-utan species showed nucleotide identity comparable to that of bonobo (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Estimates of divergence time based on sequence identity are indicated at each node, ~1Myr implies approximately 1Myr or less. Values taken from refs 29 and 30 where indicated.



We identified six genes (indicated in yellow) under moderate to strong positive selection in primates (P<0.05) that fall within the cerebroside-sulphatid region of the sphingolipid metabolism pathway (adapted from human KEGG pathway 00600). This pathway is associated with several human lysosomal storage disorders, such as Gaucher’s disease, Sandhoff’s disease, Tay-Sachs disease and metachromatic leukodystrophy. Abbreviations, annotations and connections are presented in accordance with KEGG standards: solid lines represent direct relationships between enzymes (boxes) and metabolites (circular nodes), dashed lines represent indirect relationships, arrowheads denote directionality (see http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?map00600 for further details).


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